A Polish pole vaulter by the name of Władysław Kozakiewicz made this gesture to celebrate his gold medal in front of a Soviet crowd in the 1980 Olympics, which was a pretty big act of defiance to the crowd and their hometown hero, Konstantin Volkov. This gesture is the equivalent to “Up Yours,” in case it wasn’t obvious by the mimicked arm up an anus.
Tensions between the Soviet Union and Poland were high at the time, so this was a pretty ballsy move. Then again, if you win a gold medal, you can pretty much do whatever you want. The Soviet ambassador wanted Wladyslaw stripped of the medal for the insult, but the Polish government claimed the gesture was an involuntary muscle spasm brought on by the stress of the competition.
I’m sourcing from Wikipedia, so if any readers have more accurate or additional information, please feel free to share, because this is a great gesture story.